Human beings are known as the social animals as socializing with other is highly important for a man as he cannot live in isolation. As we all know that, our present society is of a dynamic nature and to maintain peace the concept of the rule of law has been evolved. All the persons residing in a state are bound by the laws enacted by the sovereign authority.
The Constitution is known as the Supreme law of the land in India, it provides basic structure for the administration as well as the laws. The Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950 and it recognizes India as a democratic country.
In a Democratic System, the government is accountable towards the citizens of the Nation, and it is an essential element of the democracy that the person residing in the territory of the particular nation must not be discriminated by any organ of the government.
So, the Constitution of India provides a list of fundamental rights available to citizens in specific and to people at large, one of the most important right guaranteed by the Constitution of India is the right to equality under Article 14. This right is often regarded as the cornerstone for deciding upon the validity of any law enacted by the parliament. This Article guarantee that no person shall be discriminated and guarantees equal protection of laws to everyone. This article applies to citizens as well as non-citizens of the country. Article 14 of the Constitution of India is enumerated in the Constitution of India in two phrases, that is "equality before law” and "equal protection of law"., both phrases have distinct meaning and also have a vast significance over our day to day life. The Indian Kanoon as known to all has developed ever since independence to make the lives of Indian easier and peaceful.
Importance of Article 14 can be understood by understanding its use in the following:
- In Court of Law: A Court is known as the authority, which is established to serve justice among the people. Courts are an essential organ of a state that they resolve the dispute and deliver justice. Impartiality is the key as to serve justice and Article 14 of the Constitution of India guarantees freedom from partiality and lays that everyone is equal in the eyes of law. It means that no man is above the law and every person, whatever be his rank or position, is equal in the eyes of law.
- Governmental Agencies: Governmental agencies are established for the efficient and effective working of the government, like Electricity board, water supply board etc. These governmental agencies affect our day to day life directly as well as indirectly. It is highly important to know and understand that their decisions must not be in violation of Article 14.
- Governmental policies: The policies made by the government affect the life of an individual either directly or indirectly, and the ambit of the Article 14 also covers these governmental policies. That means, these policies must not be discriminatory, because discrimination in policies leads to deprivation.
Right to equality is known as the essential element of the democratic system, almost all the democratic countries have adopted it. In India, Right to Equality is known as the fundamental Right of an individual. It creates the spirit of impartiality in the government functions as well as in the court of law. This right affects the life of the individuals on the daily basis. Top Supreme Court lawyers often state that Article 14 is the Golden gate opening way towards other fundamental rights. The reason being that equality is vital for enjoying any right. Further, the Constitution of India gives another Right to enforce the Right to Equality under Article 32 and 226 to the Supreme Court and High Court.